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  • Faithful to my Homeland, the Republic of Poland

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  • EASTERN POLICY

  • The Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania has established diplomatic relations with Russia already in the 16th century and maintained them until third partitioning of Poland in 1795. After regaining independence in November 1918, Poland struggled with aggression of the Bolshevik Russia since February 1919, fighting ended thanks to the peace treaty signed in Riga on 18 March 1921. On 17 September 1939 Soviet Union invaded Poland without declaring war. Diplomatic relations were resumed on 30 July 1941 (Sikorski-Mayski treaty), however, they were broken by Soviet Union on 25 April 1943. After the Potsdam conference (17 July – 2 August 1945) relations between Polish People’s Republic and the Soviet Union were far from sovereign. After collapse of the Soviet Union (25 December 1991), Russia became the legal successor of the Soviet Union, henceforth the legal acts signed by Polish People’s Republic and the Soviet Union were inherited by the Republic of Poland and Russian Federation.

     

    Basic document regulating bilateral relations between Poland and Russia is the Treaty on friendly and neighbourly cooperation of 22 May 1992, signed by presidents L. Wałęsa and B. Yeltsin. At present a few dozens of bilateral agreements are in force.

     

    Since 2013 relations between or countries have lost their dynamics. The basis thereof was different attitude towards the architecture of the European security, controversies regarding the role and position of the countries of the Central Europe, as well as the energy security. Differences between Poland and Russia have been exposed to the biggest extend after Russian aggression in Ukraine. Poland, fulfilling joint EU policy, limited its political contacts with Moscow – at the same time we’ve kept open different channels of dialogue and technical cooperation.

     

    Moreover, Polish-Russian relations are still being overshadowed by unsolved crucial problems of political and historical nature. We are awaiting full implementation of the announcements of Russian highest authorities concerning open cooperation on investigation of the plane crash at Smolensk, handing over of the wreck of the Tu-154 M, or construction of the monument of victims at the place of the tragedy. Russian side still lacks its will to fully clarify the circumstances of the Katyń massacre, as well as persecution of Poles being part of the Stalinist repressions.

     

    Political situation between Poland and Russia has also been reflected in the economic area. In 2015 Polish export to Russia amounted to almost 5,1 billion EUR, i.e. decreased by almost 27% in comparison to 2014 and by 37% to 2013. At the same time import from Russia amounted to 17,4 billion EUR – fall by 26% compared to 2014 and by 32,5% to 2013. Russia’s share in Polish export in 2015 was only 2,9% (5,3% in 2013; Russia fell on the 7th place among most important export markets), whereas in import 7,4% (12,3% in 2013; 3rd place). The above mentioned figures resulted mainly from worsening situation of the Russian economy, as well as Russian embargo on Western food and agriculture products.

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